Technology has come a long way since our ancient ancestors roamed the Earth some 5,000 years ago, though that doesn’t make the tools and knowledge passed down to us any less essential. We may not build with sticks and stones, and cooking over an open fire has gone by the wayside, yet even today, these relics continue to shed light on the earliest days of man.
But when a group of archaeologists stumbled upon an artifact that seemed more trash than treasure, they never anticipated the wealth of information it would unlock. Not only did the discovery provide invaluable insight into our ancient past, it also revealed that our history books may not have been so accurate after all.
It all began in 2019 on the Danish island of Lolland, where excavations were underway on the Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link. A 10-mile tunnel submerged beneath the waters of the Fehmarn Belt, the Fixed Link was proposed as a direct connection between Germany and the islands of Denmark.
Tunnel Business Magazine
But as work reached the grounds of the ancient village of Syltholm, the excavation came to a grinding halt. Apparently, the villagers that’d once called this place home had left more than a few sticks and stones behind…
Business Insider Malaysia
Remnants of ancient fishing traps protruded from the mud, and the bones of prehistoric cattle were unearthed en masse. Yet when archaeologists arrived on the scene to investigate, one particular find seemed to stand out among the rest.
University College Dublin
It was a small ball of a tar-like substance, no larger than an inch across. To the untrained eye, it looked like an ordinary clump of mud: to the archaeologists, however, the find was unmistakable.
It was birch tar, a prehistoric adhesive made from the cooked bark of a birch tree. For centuries, early man used this sticky pitch to mend tools and secure spear and arrowheads to their wooden weapons. But there was more to it.
This particular piece of pitch, however, appeared to have teeth marks on it. Those who used this tar would often chew it to keep it pliable, though that wasn’t the only reason for sticking it in their mouths.
New York Post
The pitch also possessed antiseptic properties, often used to alleviate toothaches, clean teeth, and even satisfy hunger. In this sense, the pitch basically amounted to prehistoric chewing gum!
This was far from news to the archaeologists, though as they examined the gum, a thought occurred to them: if this piece of bark was once chewed by an early human, could it then contain remnants of their prehistoric DNA?
University of Michigan School for Environment and Sustainability / Flickr
They decided to put this theory to the test. After thoroughly washing centuries of dirt and grime from the pitch, researchers at the University of Copenhagen conducted a carbon analysis on the prehistoric gum — and the results were staggering.
Human Spare Parts
The chewer’s DNA was completely intact, revealing crucial details such as their gender, health, and lifestyle. In fact, there was enough genetic information here to reconstruct an entire human genome!
The researchers immediately set to work on a comprehensive portrait of the subject, going as far as creating a physical reconstruction of their likeness. The chewer turned out to be a woman — dubbed “Lola” — with dark hair, dark skin, and piercing blue eyes.
This was a significant development, as Lola’s genome more closely resembled those of the ancient people of Spain and Belgium than of Scandinavia. To the researchers, this implied that there could’ve been multiple waves of migration into the area after the ice sheets melted some 12,000 years ago.
Along with this, the researchers could determine the various illnesses and diseases she carried. Gingivitis, Streptococcus, and even Epstein-Barr were just some of the maladies discovered in Lola’s mouth.
They were even able to determine the last meal Lola ate before she’d chewed the pitch: hazelnuts and duck. This was a quality bite to eat for sure, though this discovery meant more than just that she was well fed.
Lola’s diet implied that she and her companions were likely hunter-gatherers. Though many ancient people still subsisted in such a way, it’s widely believed that farming had been adopted by most Scandinavians during Lola’s lifetime.
“It looks like in these parts maybe you have pockets of hunter-gatherers still surviving, or living side-by-side with farmers for hundreds of years,” proposed Hannes Schroeder, co-author of the study published in Nature Communications.
This theory was also supported by the fact that Lola exhibited lactose intolerance. If she and her people had been farming and domesticating animals, then milk would’ve been a staple of her diet.
Country Farm Lifestyles
With this trove of information gathered from a single piece of gum, researchers are now focusing their efforts on finding more of the discarded pitch. In fact, some scholars believe this form of preserved DNA may supplant fossilized bone as the preferred specimen for study.
“It’s incredible, because there are periods where we don’t have any bones, but birch pitch survives very well,” explained Theis Jensen, the second author of the study. “It’s a substitute for bones, and it’s very intimate. You get so much information.”
Yet even with all the prehistoric chewing gum in the world, DNA can only tell us so much about our origin as a species. A recent study has revealed that our ancient ancestors may not have been quite who we thought they were.
Ever since James Watson and Francis Crick’s team discovered the double helix structure of DNA, humankind has been obsessed with dissecting our own genetic material. In the process, we’ve found that we barely knew our true identities.
Alan Cooper, director of the Australian Centre for Ancient DNA, found that to be more true with every passing day. He and his colleague Dr. Joao Teixeira delved into the earliest days of our species, only to uncover a genetic bombshell.
To put it simply, Cooper and Teixeira discovered that our family trees include some unexpected ancestors. But before you send out invites to your next family reunion, you’ll need to take a look inside one of the world’s most famous caves.
The Liang Bua Cave in Indonesia is a natural marvel for locals and tourists alike. What really makes it special, however, are artifacts unseen by most visitors. Deep in the soil are lost items from a primitive civilization — but not one you’ve ever heard of.
The first revelation about Liang Bua came in 2003. Scientists unearthed a number of teeth and other skeletal fragments within the caverns. Though they appeared to be quite similar to human bones, there was something off about them.
New York Post
These pieces seemed too small to have come from humans. Instead, they appeared to be linked to a closely related species that coexisted with us long ago. In other words, the diggers suspected they’d come across a potential “missing link.”
It’s no secret that tens of thousands of years ago, the planet Earth was home to all kinds of wild species that are now extinct. But those creatures weren’t limited to wooly mammoths and sabre-toothed tigers. There were also beings who looked a lot like us.
The first human beings, or Homo sapiens, appeared in Africa about 300,000 years ago. As their culture developed, they moved into Europe and Asia. There, they encountered various hominins — archaic peoples who were genetically close to us.
Taking a look at the cave remains, Cooper, Teixeira, and their team members at the University of Adelaide determined they were from a diminutive species called Homo floresiensis. Their short statue earned them a fantastical name in the scientific community.
Informally, evolutionary biologists call them “hobbits.” These aren’t literally the J.R.R. Tolkien creatures, of course. But they did thrive in parts of Asia as recently as 50,000 years ago before dying out. Plus, they might not be as unfamiliar as we think.
Christian Science Monitor
After all, the hominin are in our DNA. Especially as we find ourselves in the middle of the ancestry trend, many people are learning that their genes are up to 2% Neanderthal. Certain physical features support that finding too.
There’s a number of Neanderthal traits that appear in everyday people. Based on our cartoonish idea of cavemen, a prominent brow ridge is likely the biggest giveaway. But more subtle qualities, like long-term depression, are also associated with this humanoid species.
Abroad in the Yard
Neanderthals, however, may not be our only surprise ancestors. Scientists located other EH — extinct hominin — genes in modern humans. Though there’s a chance these species are lost to the sands of time, Cooper and Teixeira felt compelled to take a closer look at the hobbits.
Putting one modern mystery gene known as EH2 under the microscope, the scientists found that it matched the bone samples from Liang Bua. Furthermore, this gene popped up mainly in people living in Southeastern Asia!
This connection blew Cooper away. In addition to locating another ancestor of modern humans, their testing proved that Homo sapiens interacted with related species far more than scholars initially suspected.
The dating of hominin remains and basic tools indicated that many likely overlapped with human existence. But in the case of the floresiensis, it turns out they were just as close to us as the Neanderthals.
Homo sapiens must have occasionally produced offspring with these hobbits, and the legacy of their lost culture lives on in our flesh and blood! Granted, there are still countless mysteries about the origins of humanity.
“We knew the story out of Africa wasn’t a simple one, but it seems to be far more complex than we have contemplated,” admitted Teixeira. He and Cooper also realized that their find was more of a stepping stone than an ultimate solution.
Facebook / Joao Carlos Teixeira
Researchers have deduced that there are up to three other unknown hominins who interbred with humans. We could just be one expedition away from cracking this genetic code. After all, the prehistoric hobbits aren’t the only lost species that have recently come to light.
Even by French standards, the department of Charente set itself apart by teeming with the finest wineries in the world. The town of Cognac in particular was famous for its brandy. However, a nearby field held vintages of a different kind.
On The Go Tours
Maxime Lasseron was tucked away in a classroom at the Paris National Museum of National History when he first heard about the area. His professors whispered that it could have been the most promising paleontology site in the country.
At that moment, Maxime knew he had to be a part of the dig. The doctoral student could barely contain his excitement once he got permission to spend the summer of 2019 at Angeac-Charente. Sure, it wasn’t exactly the most glamorous workplace.
The rocky clay of Charente was full of promise. Excavators at the site already made a host of discoveries big and small. And rather than making them think the ground was already depleted, these finds convinced them that something big was waiting down there.
For one thing, paleontologists dug up more fossils than they could keep track of! The past ten years uncovered specimens that covered millions of years and several periods of geological history. And these finds weren’t even what had researchers really excited.
Scientists located a giant dinosaur toe back in 2014. Measuring at over 13 inches in length, this appendage must have come from a truly gigantic beast. Could the rest of the behemoth still be down in the earth?
All together, paleontologists catalogued over 7,000 dinosaur bones at Angeac-Charente, and yet they were still after the big one. Maxime figured he could help, even if his participation boiled down to hauling away dirt.
So Maxime took every chance he got to get down and dirty. Most of his blood, sweat, and tears proved fruitless, right up until he hit something hard and smooth. Hands trembling, he brushed the soil of the surface.
Amazingly, the object just kept going. Maxime called over a few of his colleagues, and the entire team drove their spades into the ground with excitement. “We kept saying, ‘Oh, there’s more!’” recalled Maxime.
At the same time, Maxime had to take incredible care not to damage his find. They unearthed one bit at a time, and gradually the shape of a humongous bone began to take shape.
It certainly appeared to be a dinosaur, and a colossal one at that. Just by eyeballing this single bone, Maxime estimated that it dwarfed the mighty Tyrannosaurus rex. He couldn’t wait to measure it.
Once the paleontologists carved out the object from the ground, they all gaped in awe. The bone — which appeared to be a femur — came out to six and a half feet from end to end.
Clocking in at 1,100 pounds, the scientists needed to hire a crane to move the bone from the dig site. The half-ton wonder would make its way back to Paris for extensive study. This specimen wasn’t just impressive for its size, either.
Most skeletal matter of this size broke into many small fragments over the eons. This wholly intact femur, on the other hand, offered up a breakthrough in paleontology. Maxime awaited official word of the bone’s species.
As it turned out, the owner was just the sort of monster they were all hoping for. Maxime dug up the remains of a sauropod, a long-necked herbivore that made its mark as one of the largest dinosaurs to walk the Earth.
Maxime’s discovery really brought the dinosaur to life. Scar tissue on the surface of the femur revealed the locations of muscles and tendons, shining a bright light on the previously obscure anatomy of this species.
Jean-François Tournepiche, the lead operator at Angeac-Charente, gave Maxime a hearty congratulations. His hard work paid huge dividents for the future of the dig. Jean-François suggested sauropod femur alone meant they’d have funding to continue there for the next 30 years.
Plus, the locating of one sauropod bone hinted that there could be many more mesozoic treasures awaiting the paleontologists. They still had a lot of digging to do — that much was clear.
For Maxime, the sauropod discovery was an important first step in launching him into paleontological stardom. Of course, he wouldn’t be able to do it all alone. He needed collaborators from all over the world.
Spread across Montana, the Dakotas, and Wyoming, the Hell Creek Formation is the stuff of a paleontologist’s dream. Composed of mudstones, clay, and sandstones, this deposit is believed to have originated over 65 million years ago.
Yet age isn’t the Hell Creek Formation’s most noteworthy claim — it’s what can be found there that truly makes the deposit special. A treasure trove of fossils have been unearthed over the years, including those of some of the fiercest creatures of all time.
The Fossil Guy
The first documented remains of a Tyrannosaurus Rex were actually discovered at Hell Creek by famed paleontologist Barnum “Mr. Bones” Brown. Since then, the Hell Creek Formation has become a world-renown hotspot for fossil hunters.
Paleontologists have dug up everything from dinosaur claws to crocodile teeth to even fossilized salamanders in this deposit, so it only made sense for college student Harrison Duran to make the Hell Creek Formation the site of his excavation in 2019.
Hell Creek Dinosaurs
A fifth-year biology student at the University of California, Merced, Duran had dreamed of exploring Hell Creek ever since childhood. Yet Duran knew he couldn’t just wander into the Montana badlands and start digging — he needed a team.
PigMine 6 / YouTube / The New York Times
That’s where Michael Kjelland came in. A fellow fossil hunter and professor at North Dakota’s Maryville State University, Kjelland and Duran met at a conference and immediately bonded over their love of dinosaurs.
Michael E. Kjelland
Kjelland seemed the perfect partner for Duran’s expedition, as he was familiar with Hell Creek Formation and had unearthed a handful of fossils there in expeditions passed. However, he’d never visited the site Duran intended to explore, making this a first-time experience for both of them.
In June 2019, the men arrived in Montana with pickaxes in hand and fossils on the brain. There was no telling what they’d find — if anything at all — but for Duran and Kjelland, that was all part of the fun.
The first three days of digging yielded only dirt for the hopeful fossil hunters, though on the fourth day, they struck something that most certainly wasn’t rock. After clearing away the rubble, Duran and Kjelland could hardly believe what they’d found.
Heavy Metal Science
Nestled upside down in the dirt was a fossilized skull, the base of its left horn partially exposed. The men scrambled to clear the remaining dirt, and when all was said and done, Duran and Kjelland were left face to face with a Triceratops!
“I can’t quite express my excitement in that moment when we uncovered the skull,” Duran recounted in a UC Merced newsletter. “I’ve been obsessed with dinosaurs since I was a kid, so it was a pretty big deal.”
What’s more, the skull was discovered in the presence of various plant fossils from the Cretaceous era. This was a huge find, as these remains allowrf the team a better idea of the circumstances surrounding the dinosaur’s death.
“It is wonderful that we found fossilized wood and tree leaves right around, and even under, the skull,” said Duran. “It gives us a more complete picture of the environment at the time.”
The men were ecstatic over their discovery of the dinosaur, whom they dubbed “Alice” after the owner of the property on which they’d been digging. Yet now came time for the hard part: getting the fossil out of the ground.
“It took a full week to excavate Alice, whose fragile skull was meticulously stabilized with a specialized glue to solidify the fractured, mineralized bones, before an accelerant was applied to bond the structures,” UC Merced reported in their release.
Once they’d freed her from the dirt, Duran and Kjelland coated Alice in foil and plaster in preparation of transport. They finished off by wrapping the entire skull in memory foam, ensuring that Alice’s journey from the Hell Creek Formation would go off without a hitch.
Following their discovery, Duran and Kjelland founded Fossil Excavators, a nonprofit foundation dedicated to discovering and further educating people about fossils. The foundation will also conduct further research on Alice in the hope of one day putting her on display.
“It would be amazing for UC Merced to be able to display Alice on campus,” said Duran. “It’s such a rare opportunity to showcase something like this, and I’d like to share it with the campus community.”
Duran and Kjelland plan on returning to the dig site, though neither of them will spill the beans on the exact location. So if you’re looking to dig up the rest of ‘ol Alice, you might just have to pick up a shovel and go find her for yourself.
Yet Triceratopses and T-Rexes aren’t the most significant finds made in the Hell Creek Formation. Just a few years prior, one researcher made an earth-shattering discovery here that changed everything we thought we knew about the last days of the dinosaurs.
Most people would consider a preoccupation with bones concerning, though Robert DePalma’s love of the dead and buried is anything but peculiar. An aspiring paleontologist, the 37-year-old managed to turn his lifelong passion into a curator position for the Palm Beach Museum of Natural History.
Robert DePalma / Facebook
But DePalma is perhaps best known for the widely publicized discovery he made near Bowman, North Dakota, in 2012. After receiving a tip from a private fossil collector, DePalma and his team began excavating a site along the well-known Hell Creek Formation.
National Museum of Natural History Unearthed
Initially, DePalma felt the site, dubbed “Tanis,” had little promise, something the collector had made him privy to prior to the excavation. However, after returning to Tanis in 2013, the paleontologist discovered there was more to this unassuming patch of rock than met the eye.
Robert DePalma / Facebook
Just a few meters below the surface, DePalma discovered a host of rare and unusual fossils, including those of species he claimed to have never seen before. It was an incredible find, though one set of bones in particular caught DePalma’s eye — and left him positively stumped.
Sciene Channel / Twitter
Beneath the skeleton of a freshwater paddlefish, DePalma discovered the tooth of a mosasaur, an enormous reptilian predator that made its home in the oceans of the Early Cretaceous period. This puzzled DePalma and his team, for there was no way this creature could’ve existed in the fresh waters of prehistoric North Dakota.
The layout of the find was also unusual, the fossils deposited haphazardly and some skeletons even buried vertically in the dirt. Combined with the fact that tektites — small bits of natural glass created from meteor impacts — were also present, everyone was left scratching their head.
Then, a lightbulb went off: could the tektite fragments found in the Tanis deposit have been scattered here by the asteroid that wiped out the dinosaurs? While some researchers would be quick to accept such a theory, the plausibility of this scenario isn’t exactly cut and dry.
The widely held belief that an asteroid impact caused the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event is primarily based on the presence of the KT layer. This 66-million-year-old band of earth stretches over nearly the entire globe and contains a high level of iridium, an element primarily found in asteroids.
This theory is also supported by the Chicxulub crater, a 112-mile impression in the Yucatan Peninsula that contains the same mineral make-up as the KT layer. Therefore, most scientists assume that the asteroid that created this crater scattered the iridium debris that ultimately wiped out the dinosaurs.
The Silver Ink
If this were the case, then, one would expect to find plenty of fossils in the KT layer: after all, it was during this time that nearly all life on Earth went extinct. However, this actually isn’t true at all — hardly any fossils have ever been found in this layer of rock.
In fact, most fossils are found about ten feet below the KT layer, which, geologically speaking, would amount to thousands of years between the death of these creatures and the fateful asteroid impact. Therefore, it seems highly unlikely that an extraterrestrial object reduced every last dinosaur to rubble.
Proponents of this alternate theory do still believe that an asteroid impact finished off the last of these prehistoric creatures, though they propose that factors like large-scale volcanic activity and climate change had already wiped out most of the dinosaurs by this point.
However, according to DePalma, the Tanis find was the key to finally putting this debate to bed. Not only were the fossils he discovered located within the KT layer, but their haphazard placement suggested they were deposited here just moments after the asteroid struck.
Robert DePalma / Facebook
With this information in mind, DePalma posited that the mile-high tsunamis created by the impact must’ve traveled up river valleys and into freshwater bodies, which is how the mosasaur tooth came to be here. This was big news.
Eager to share his discovery with the world, DePalma sat down with The New Yorker to share the exclusive details of his historic find. However, as soon as the story broke in April 2019, the paleontology community grew outraged.
Many of DePalma’s colleagues were upset that the paleontologist had chosen to share his story with The New Yorker instead of a reputable scientific journal. DePalma later published his discovery in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, though many felt this account was significantly less detailed than his New Yorker piece.
Even prior to this, however, DePalma was considered by some to be a controversial figure in the world of paleontology. In 2015, he introduced a new species of dinosaur he’d recovered from the Hell Creek Formation dubbed Dakotaraptor, though after presenting the completed skeleton, it was discovered one of the bones belonged to a turtle.
DePalma also stirred up controversy with his business practices, as he retains all control of his specimens even after they’ve been placed in museums and university collections. He also reportedly funds his field work by creating replicas of his finds and selling them to private collectors.
Robert DePalma / Facebook
But the strangest discrepancy of all may be DePalma’s record of the discovery itself. While the paleontologist and his team have made claims about the large number of dinosaur fossils uncovered near the surface of the Tanis deposit, his article in PNAS only mentions one example in a supplementary document.
The San Diego Union-Tribune
As of now, additional papers on Tanis are being prepared that will hopefully clear up the confusion surrounding DePalma’s find. Until then, one can only wonder if DePalma’s discovery will truly change history or simply wind up as the fabrication of another would-be hero in search of fame and glory.
FallonCohen / Imgur
For David Bradt, however, the discovery he made while out hunting was certainly the real deal. While the Montana man was only hoping to return from his hunting trip with something to show for it, he never could’ve anticipated he was about to make history.
One November afternoon, Bradt ventured into Montana’s Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge hoping to bag an elk. While he was prepared for a hunt, he never imagined the creature he would find.
Allen Russell Photography
Unfortunately, luck wasn’t on David’s side that day. He hadn’t seen an elk all afternoon, so he decided to walk over to a nearby spring to take a break.
David approached the water’s edge to splash some cool water on his face when he noticed something sticking out from the rocks. Rather than return to his futile hunt, he bent down to investigate.
Based on a life of outdoor experience, Bradt assumed that he had spotted some petrified wood. But when he took a closer look, he realized that it was something much different.
Utah Geological Survey
He found a bone! He assumed that it was probably just from a dead elk or a bighorn sheep that called the refuge home, but something about it didn’t seem right.
David was an avid outdoorsman, but this bone was out of his depth. He notified both wildlife services and the paleontology department of a local museum before reaching out to some unlikely experts for help.
Museum of the Rockies
He called his children! Like most kids, Kellen and Garrison loved dinosaurs. They immediately wanted to get involved and help their dad get to the bottom of this mysterious discovery.
The trio began to clear dirt away from the bone, but something unusual happened: they just kept revealing more and more bone. Eventually they had to go home for the night, making sure to keep the site secret.
The size was beginning to send David’s mind racing. Bones this large had to belong to something massive. “It’s about the size of a cow.” Given how large the bone was, it was getting tough to keep the site secret.
But why did they have to keep the spot hidden? Rare fossils are quite valuable and can attract robbers looking for a quick buck. But there was something else significant about the site…
One hundred million years ago, the entire region was one giant mud pit on the bottom of an inland sea. That meant the creature, despite being found in the middle of Montana, was likely aquatic.
Scientists initially suspected the bone belonged to a mosasaurus, a giant predatory creature that most resembled a lizard mixed with a whale. As the excavation continued, however, they came to realize they were looking at something else.
Their next best guess was a plesiosaur, similar to the mythical Loch Ness monster. Once again, however, the bones didn’t seem to match up. Without a clear hypothesis, all scientists could do was keep digging.
More dirt was washed away and, eventually, the scientists started dissolving the rock in order to remove the bones. When the work was done, they unearthed an unusual looking skull.
It was a dinosaur skull! Rather than a traditionally shaped cranium, this one looked more like a big cat or alligator. There was also an unusually large tail wrapped around the mass of bones. Outside help was necessary.
The bones were sent to scientists at the University of Alaska in Fairbanks for analysis. They too, thought the skeleton was similar to a plesiosaur, except for one defining difference.
Plesiosaurs are known for their long, serpentine necks, and this skeleton was lacking that feature. Eventually the scientists reached an undeniable conclusion: this was something new and deadly.
After further study, experts concluded the skeleton belonged to an elasmosaurus, a variant of plesiosaur. Its neck contained fewer vertebrae than average, however, only measuring seven feet long rather than the usual 18 feet.
Fairbanks Daily News-Miner
Scientists actually weren’t sure what was going on. They had never seen a plesiosaur with this short of a neck before. They were able to come up with one working theory, however…
This species, the short-necked elasmosaur, was an undiscovered evolutionary variant of the larger dinosaur. Similar to giraffes and okapis, it appeared that two similar species were roaming the sea at the same time.
Bradt’s discovery just goes to show that finding buried treasure isn’t something that only happens in the movies. In fact, a construction worker operating in Canada found something that people would love to see go toe-to-toe with Brandt’s plesiosaur.
It was any old Monday for Shawn Funk, who was working for the energy company Suncor. He was manning the backhoe in Millennium Mine, located about 17 miles north of Fort McMurrary in Alberta, Canada.
Suncor Energy / YouTube
Suncor was tasked with mining crude oil deep within the mine. Shawn used his machine to excavate through layers of sand that was once rich with marine plants and animals from hundreds of millions of years ago.
Since that distant time, the plants and animals have died and settled to the bottom of the previously existing ocean. Add a little heat and pressure overtime, and the once living organisms turned into hydrocarbons. Crude oil.
Due to the nature of this biological process, Shawn rarely ran into anything other than sand and oil on the job. Which was why, when Shawn returned to work after taking a lunch break, he found it odd the backhoe was humming a different tune.
Suncor Energy / YouTube
In his 12 years of work, he had only ever ran into petrified tree stumps, so he could tell by the very different sound that his machine was striking something different. It was something much harder than both the sand and native rock in the area.
North Dakota Studies
Immediately pulling his backhoe up from the earth, Shawn dumped the contents of the excavator out in front of him. Odd looking light-brown colored lumps spilled out onto the ground. He flipped some pieces over and noticed rows of gray disks…
Suncor Energy / YouTube
In that moment, Shawn knew he needed to stop digging and call someone immediately. Suncor executives called Royal Tyrrell Museum, who quickly realized that Shawn stumbled upon something very rare. The museum flew out two technicians to the site.
Suncor Energy / YouTube
The team was able to locate the large mass that these unusual chunks came from, and from there, Suncor excavators and museum technicians spent 12 hours chipping away at the estimated 15,000-pound rock mass.
Suncor Energy / YouTube
They were finally able to free the rock accretion and lift it from the earth. As they lowered it down to level ground, the 7.5 ton mass fell to the ground and shattered revealing a paleontologist’s paradise…
Suncor Energy / YouTube
They’d found the remains of a prehistoric organism! The museum technicians inspected the mystery creature’s shattered remains and put them back together like a puzzle.
When they finished a rough re-assemblage of the creature it highly resembled a realistic, nine-foot tall dinosaur! But the truly remarkable thing about this discovery was that they weren’t looking at a fossil of bones. In fact, there were no bones visible at all: they were seeing bony scutes and plates — the dinosaur was entirely petrified.
Thousands of questions flooded the minds of the museum technicians. How was this dinosaur fossilized so well that it was basically mummified? They were dying to figure out the story of this rare find.
The pieces of the petrified dinosaur were taken back to the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Paleontology for tests and research, where it was discovered the creature lived about 110 million years ago! The dinosaur was very clearly an armored plant-eater, similar to those found in western Canada.
Scientists placed the creature in the genus Ankylosaurus. It’s believed that it died in western Canada and got transported by a massive flood where it ended up at the bottom of a pre-historic ocean.
A full reconstruction of the herbivore revealed it was four-legged, armor-plated dinosaur covered in spikes with a long tail most-likely covered in spikes to fend off predators — a brand new species called a called Nodosaur!
In its petrified state, the Nodosaur weighs about 2,500 pounds, and it’s believed that when alive, it weighed about 3,000 pounds. The Nodosaur would have been a fairly solitary creature 100 millions years ago.
Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology
It’s miraculous the behemoth’s body remained so intact after such a rough and long distance journey. As of 2019, how this occurred was still a mystery to scientists, but it had to have happened quickly because the dinosaur laid undisturbed for millions of years while it was covered by the substrate.
Because of its pristine condition, scientists were able to use modern scans to get a glimpse inside the dinosaur’s hard exoskeleton. They saw the bone structure and even some internal workings of the beast’s stomach. That’s how well preserved this find was.
Researchers from the museum and around the world worked for six years and for over 7,000 hours to test, preserve, and prepare the remains of this precious find. The Nodosaur is on display at the Royal Tyrrell Museum for those wishing to get a look at the closest thing to a real dinosaur.
In early 2019, scientists were still studying the Nodosaur and its scans to continue to learn about dinosaurs in general, as nothing like this had ever been found before. However, not far away, archeologists made a discovery that rivaled that of the Nodosaur.
See, the Heiltsuk people, the First Nation indigenous to British Columbia’s Great Bear Rainforest, have laid claim to the remote Triquet Island for nearly 5,000 years. But archaeologists have dismissed their claim of ownership for one glaring reason…
Simon Fraser University
The continental glacier that formed over Canada during the last Ice Age would’ve also covered Triquet Island, making it uninhabitable. But even with the facts stacked against the Heiltsuk, a small group of researchers took it upon themselves to uncover the truth once and for all.
The Robinson Library
The archaeologists began an extensive excavation of the remote island in the hope of discovering traces of a past civilization. What they found there not only shocked the entire archaeological community, but it also changed history forever.
Beneath several layers of earth, they found remnants of an ancient, wood-burning hearth. But how could this be? According to researchers, it would’ve been impossible for humans to dig their way through the glacial ice to get to the soil below.
As they continued digging, researchers unearthed additional artifacts, including tools and weapons. This discovery stumped the team as the Heiltsuk people traditionally didn’t use tools of this kind.
The Heiltsuk people had derived their food source from fishing and smoking salmon, utilizing small, precise tools to harvest the fish. The tools and weapons found were much larger and likely would’ve been used to hunt large sea mammals, such as seals, sea lions, and walruses.
What’s more, the team also uncovered shards of obsidian, a glass-like rock only found in areas of heavy volcanic activity. This discovery also puzzled the archaeologists, as there were no known volcanoes near that part of British Columbia. So, how did this rock — and these people — get there?
The historians deduced that whoever left these artifacts must have traversed the land bridge that existed between Siberia and Alaska during prehistoric times. Yet researchers still needed cold-hard facts…
Luckily, a closer inspection of the hearth revealed ancient charcoal remains, which the archaeologists quickly brought to the lab for carbon dating. When they received the results, the researchers couldn’t believe their eyes: everything they knew was a lie.
According to the carbon dating report, these bits of charcoal were an astonishing 14,000 years old, making them the oldest carbon remains ever to be discovered in North America.
Even by global standards, this was an extraordinary find. After all, these simple pieces of charcoal were older than the Great Pyramid of Giza and even predated the invention of the wheel! But that’s not the most remarkable fact about this discovery.
The 14,000-year-old discovery placed the earliest Heiltsuk at Triquet Island 2,000 years before the end of the ice age. Therefore, the island couldn’t have been covered by the massive continental glacier. And that’s not all.
Since Triquet Island was surrounded on all sides by water, the early Heiltsuk would’ve used boats to traverse the open waters. Boats, however, were not believed to have been invented until centuries later.
This meant that the Heiltsuk settled the area 2,000 years before initially believed. If this was the case, then these early men likely crossed paths with some of history’s most formidable beasts.
As the Heiltsuk people made their way south from the land bridge, they likely had to fend off giant creatures like mastodons, woolly mammoths, and giant sloths. But somehow, these humans survived, and it’s likely for one crucial reason.
Thanks to the Pacific Ocean itself, the sea level at Triquet Island remained constant for over 15,000 years. So as the sea gradually eroded the surrounding islands, the great beasts of the Pacific Northwest were kept at bay, leaving the Heiltsuk to a peaceful, secluded existence.
The most astounding realization that’s come to light is the fact that the Heiltsuk people were able to preserve their history orally for nearly 14,000 years. However, they are still being deprived of their history’s legitimacy.
When the media caught wind of the story, they seemed to focus more on what the discovery meant for the scientific community rather than acknowledge the rich history of the Heiltsuk. To many, the media’s portrayal of the nation was seen as highly disrespectful.
As a result, University of Victoria student Alisha Gauvreau — who was present during the excavation — has dedicated herself to shifting the focus of the dialogue toward the Heiltsuk people.
The Heiltsuk claim to Triquet Island stands as one of the oldest land-ownership claims in the world. Not only does this discovery speak volumes about the strength of the Heiltsuk people, but it also represents the indomitable spirit of mankind.
kris krüg / Flickr