What if you could look at someone and immediately determine whether they’re a criminal? What do you think they would look like? It seems unbelievable now, but back in the 19th century, medical professionals believed that a single, seemingly insignificant physical detail could provide hard evidence for a person’s guilt. Unsurprisingly, the “science” they developed behind their theory is just as distrubing as their claim.

This theory was originally developed by the Italian professor Cesare Lombroso in the early 1870s. Lombroso, now seen as the “father of criminology,” was a unique character in his own right.