Close your eyes and picture three things: corn, tractors, and cows. If the next thing that pops into your head is a red barn and acres of green fields, then it’s safe to say you have a pretty standard idea of all the things that can be found on a farm. But if you asked Juan de Dios Sota what he’s dug up on his own pastures, he’d have some very different answers to give you.

Sure, finding an old hammer you lost ten years ago would be surprising to anyone working the land for a living, but when this Argentinian farmer came across an unusually large lump jutting out of the earth, he soon found his farm overrun with scientists just dying for a look at his once-in-a-lifetime find.

This certainly came as a surprise for Juan, as on the day in question the humble farmer was simply bringing his cattle to pasture. With a recent drought having swept through the area, there was now more room than ever for his livestock to graze.

Dude Ranchers’ Association

Even so, Juan’s cattle were particularly drawn to the riverbeds of the Vallimanca. While normally flooded with abundant rainwaters, the beds of the small stream now stood cracked and desert-dry.

Nasha Ila / Flickr

But as Juan shepherded his livestock along the riverbed, he nearly tripped over a strange lump in the dirt. Initially, Juan just assumed he’d bumped into a rock — that is, until he decided to take a closer look.

La Trocha Digital

The “rock” was covered in a distinct, organic pattern, almost as if it had once belonged to some kind of living being. With this inkling in mind, Juan knew this wasn’t something to keep to himself.

Saladillo Diario

A team of local archaeologists quickly arrived on the scene, whereupon they made a second startling discovery: whatever this creature was, it seemed to have had some company.

El Regional Digital

Alongside the first mass, the archaeologists unearthed a second object, this one bigger than the last. This led the team to further excavate the riverbank, and, boy, were they happy they did so…

Diario El Tiempo

Four of the large, shell-like objects emerged from the dirt, and at first sight, the archaeologists couldn’t help but feel that these strange masses had belonged to a group of creatures some people even keep as pets.

INCUAPA

Tortoises! After all, what other animal would need shells as large as these? But upon further study, the archaeologists realized these enormous casings couldn’t have belonged to any animal that walks the Earth today — or even thousands of years ago.

justinclayton99 / Flickr

No, the researchers were certain these shells belonged to a group of glyptodons, prehistoric creatures that roamed South America some 30 million years ago. In fact, glyptodons are the ancestors of modern-day armadillos… though not quite as adorable.

Eileen Fonferko / Flickr

Glyptodons were enormous armored mammals, the average of which stood 5 feet tall, 11 feet in length, and weighed upward of two tons. To put that into perspective, most of these creatures were roughly the size of a Volkswagen Beetle!

Along with its thick, bony shell, glyptodons also possessed heavily armored heads and tails that could be wielded as weapons. Unfortunately, these protective measures simply weren’t enough.

Glyptodons faced heavy predation from larger creatures, and even early humans hunted them to use their shells for shelter. By the beginning of the Holocene epoch — roughly 10,000 years ago — the last of the glyptodons had gone extinct.

Wikimedia Commons

But while shells like these had been unearthed in South America prior to Juan’s discovery, very rarely were multiple glyptodons found together. In that respect, finding four of them in one location was truly something for the history books.

INCUAPA

“It is the first time there have been four animals like this in the same site,” explained Pablo Messino, one of the on-site archaeologists. “Most of them were facing the same direction like they were walking towards something.”

INCUAPA

With that in mind, these creatures were clearly traveling together, almost like a prehistoric family. In fact, the archaeologists even surmised that these four glyptodons could’ve been a mother and father leading their young.

Not only did this open up the possibility of a familial hierarchy existing amongst these creatures, but it also called into question whether sexual dimorphism played a role in their development. Given that the fossilized shells varied in size, it’s very possible that gender determined how big a glyptodon could grow.

Jan Stefka / Flickr

“These kinds of cases, in which several individuals together who died in the same circumstances, are really exceptional and undoubtedly will give us a lot of information about these enigmatic animals and will allow us to test several hypotheses that we have been driving in recent years,” shared site paleontologist Ricardo Bonini.

INCUAPA

As of now, Bonini and his team are working diligently to completely excavate the glyptodon remains, as actually moving the thousand-pound shells will require another round of intense effort. But once the family of four is ready to roll, big plans have already been set for them.

INCUAPA

The glyptodons will be transported to the Institute of Archaeological and Palaeontological Investigations of the Pampa Quaternary (Incuapa-Conicet) for examination and DNA testing. Researchers hope that further study will reveal additional insight into their lives, including their sex, exact age, and cause of death.

@CMNHvertpaleo / Twitter

As for Juan de Dios Sota, he can take pride in knowing that his accidental discovery has brought researchers one step closer to understanding the glyptodon. He knew his discovery, along with another, would help paint a greater picture of the past.

On September 19th, 1991, German hikers Helmut and Erika Simon set off on an expedition through the snowcapped peaks of the Italian Alps. The Simons were looking to have an unforgettable experience, and by day’s end, the couple had gotten exactly that.

Eternal Lifestyle

As they navigated the spectacular vistas of the region’s Otztal Alps, the Simons — encouraged by years of hiking experience — tackled some of the range’s more treacherous terrain. And so, the couple abandoned their planned route and began exploring off trail.

Vent

Nearing the summit of a large mountain, the Simons noticed a strange-looking shape jutting out of the earth. The couple approached the object, and what they found there chilled them more than any snow ever could…

RMI Expeditions

It was a human corpse! The Simons were understandably shaken by their discovery, which they believed to be the body of a fellow hiker that had met an unfortunate end. But when the couple contacted authorities, they soon learned there was a lot more to this body.

World Lifestyle

Just after the excavation team arrived a violent storm swept through the mountains, making the recovery of the body incredibly difficult. After three long days of on-and-off digging, rescue workers were finally able to unearth the frozen corpse.

News broke quickly of the daring mountainside recovery, with one Austrian reporter dubbing the deceased mountaineer “Otzi the Iceman” after the location in which he was found. But as authorities began to inspect the recovered body, they realized that Otzi was no ordinary hiker…

The Times of Israel

Otzi was quickly brought to the University of Innsbruck, where archaeologist Konrad Spindler examined his body and made a startling discovery. As it turns out, Otzi was actually an ancient mummy cadaver from the Bronze Age, making him an astonishing 5,300 years old!

Otzi’s body was incredibly well-preserved thanks to the wet mountain conditions. Not only did this enable scientists to run an advanced test on the remains, but it also allowed them to create a 3D reconstruction of what Otzi might’ve looked like.

Bonnie Brennan / Smithsonian Mag

According to the data taken from his body, Otzi stood 5’5″, weighed 84 pounds, and was 45 years of age at the time of his death. Scientists also deduced that Otzi had brown eyes, a thick beard, and generally maintained an overall haggard appearance. But the revelations about Otzi weren’t solely cosmetic.

Mother Nature Network

From the 30 different pollen samples taken from Otzi’s stomach, scientists determined that the iceman had perished sometime in the spring or summer. This information, coupled with the fact that Otzi had eaten an ibex a mere two hours before his death, allowed scientists to trace his travels through the region as well as understand some of the diseases he suffered from during his lifetime.

Even after thousands of years in the snow, tests on the body revealed that Otzi had been plagued with a myriad of ailments, including whipworm, cardiovascular disease, and lactose intolerance. Otzi also suffered from the earliest-known case of Lyme’s Disease, though this wouldn’t be the iceman’s only historical first…

Der Mann aus dem Eis

Thanks to the incredible condition of his skin, scientists were able to identify a number of markings on Otzi’s body as primitive tattoos, which were likely used to mark acupuncture points. Not only did this make Otzi the oldest tattooed mummy to date, but it also indicated that acupuncture was practiced 2,000 years before first believed.

Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson

Despite this wealth of information derived from Otzi’s body, it took a full decade before the mystery surrounding the iceman’s death was solved. Though scientists originally believed he had died from exposure, new studies conducted in 2001 revealed a grisly truth behind Otzi’s untimely demise…

Nature

Using advanced x-ray technology, scientists discovered an arrowhead lodged in Otzi’s left shoulder. Given the location of the shot, the arrow would’ve pierced a vital artery, likely causing Otzi to bleed to death. It wasn’t a snowstorm that killed Otzi: he was murdered!

Wild Truth

Questions swirled about this newfound revelation, with scientists scrambling to find a motivation for the murder of the iceman. One theory suggested that Otzi had been shot while raiding a rival tribe, while another claimed that Otzi had been the victim of ritual sacrifice. Ultimately, though, the items found alongside Otzi’s body provided the biggest insight into his death.

National Geographic

The iceman was discovered with a number of valuables in his possession, including tools, furs, and a copper axe. Seeing that the killer had simply left these items alongside the body, scientists deduced that the killing was likely of a personal nature. Otzi’s murder was solved, but one final realization about the mummy proved deadly for all those involved.

In 2004, 13 years after he and Erika first discovered Otzi, Helmut Simon died in a freak accident during a trek through the Austrian Alps. Not long after, Konrad Spindler, the archaeologist that first examined Otzi, also perished under mysterious circumstances. Fueled by these unexplained deaths, rumors began to circulate that, like the ancient pharaohs of Egypt, the iceman was cursed.

Speculation about the curse only increased when one of the Alpine guides that excavated Otzi was killed in an avalanche, and a forensic expert that once touched Otzi’s body died in a car accident. To this day, seven deaths have been attributed to the curse of Otzi.

Those looking to experience the wonder of Otzi firsthand – and potentially invite a curse or two – could visit the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology in Bolzano, Italy, where he stood on display. A memorial was also constructed at the site of Otzi’s discovery to commemorate the historic find.

Viennaweekends / WordPress

Though Otzi’s story may be a long and controversial one, there’s no denying his importance to the archaeological community. As scientists continue to peel back the layers of the iceman’s past, hopefully, we too will learn more about the secrets of our history.

Otztal Blog

Like recently as the first nation indigenous to British Columbia’s Great Bear Rainforest, the Heiltsuk people have laid claim to the remote Triquet Island for nearly 5,000 years. But archaeologists have dismissed their claim of ownership for one glaring reason…

Simon Fraser University

The continental glacier that formed over Canada during the last Ice Age would’ve also covered Triquet Island, making it uninhabitable. But even with the facts stacked against the Heiltsuk, a small group of researchers took it upon themselves to uncover the truth once and for all.

The Robinson Library

The archaeologists began an extensive excavation of the remote island in the hope of discovering traces of a past civilization. What they found there not only shocked the entire archaeological community, but it also changed history forever.

Second Nexus

Beneath several layers of earth, they found remnants of an ancient, wood-burning hearth. But how could this be? According to researchers, it would’ve been impossible for humans to dig their way through the glacial ice to get to the soil below.

As they continued digging, researchers unearthed additional artifacts, including tools and weapons. This discovery stumped the team as the Heiltsuk people traditionally didn’t use tools of this kind.

The Heiltsuk people had derived their food source from fishing and smoking salmon, utilizing small, precise tools to harvest the fish. The tools and weapons found were much larger and likely would’ve been used to hunt large sea mammals, such as seals, sea lions, and walruses.

What’s more, the team also uncovered shards of obsidian, a glass-like rock only found in areas of heavy volcanic activity. This discovery also puzzled the archaeologists, as there were no known volcanoes near that part of British Columbia. So, how did this rock — and these people — get there?

KLCC

The historians deduced that whoever left these artifacts must have traversed the land bridge that existed between Siberia and Alaska during prehistoric times. Yet researchers still needed cold-hard facts…

Luckily, a closer inspection of the hearth revealed ancient charcoal remains, which the archaeologists quickly brought to the lab for carbon dating. When they received the results, the researchers couldn’t believe their eyes: everything they knew was a lie.

According to the carbon dating report, these bits of charcoal were an astonishing 14,000 years old, making them the oldest carbon remains ever to be discovered in North America.

Even by global standards, this was an extraordinary find. After all, these simple pieces of charcoal were older than the Great Pyramid of Giza and even predated the invention of the wheel! But that’s not the most remarkable fact about this discovery.

The 14,000-year-old discovery placed the earliest Heiltsuk at Triquet Island 2,000 years before the end of the ice age. Therefore, the island couldn’t have been covered by the massive continental glacier. And that’s not all.

Since Triquet Island was surrounded on all sides by water, the early Heiltsuk would’ve used boats to traverse the open waters. Because boats were not believed to have been invented until centuries later, this presented the possibility that early humans could’ve navigated along the North American coastlines in order to settle the continent.

Smithsonian

This meant that the Heiltsuk settled the area 2,000 years before initially believed. If this was the case, then these early men likely crossed paths with some of history’s most formidable beasts.

As the Heiltsuk people made their way south from the land bridge, they likely had to fend off giant creatures like mastodons, woolly mammoths, and giant sloths. But somehow, these humans survived, and it’s likely for one crucial reason.

Thanks to the Pacific Ocean itself, the sea level at Triquet Island remained constant for over 15,000 years. So as the sea gradually eroded the surrounding islands, the great beasts of the Pacific Northwest were kept at bay, leaving the Heiltsuk to a peaceful, secluded existence.

The most astounding realization that’s come to light is the fact that the Heiltsuk people were able to preserve their history orally for nearly 14,000 years. However, they are still being deprived of their history’s legitimacy.

When the media caught wind of the story, they seemed to focus more on what the discovery meant for the scientific community rather than acknowledge the rich history of the Heiltsuk. To many, the media’s portrayal of the nation was seen as highly disrespectful.

As a result, the University of Victoria student Alisha Gauvreau — who was present during the excavation — has dedicated herself to shifting the focus of the dialogue toward the Heiltsuk people.

The Heiltsuk claim to Triquet Island stands as one of the oldest land-ownership claims in the world. Not only does this discovery speak volumes about the strength of the Heiltsuk people, but it also represents the indomitable spirit of mankind.

kris krüg / Flickr